Mawphlang village is situated in the southern part of Shillong at a Distance of 24 kms, its highest altitude is 1863 metres from sea level. Located at 25° 5′ N & 26° 10′ N Latitude, and 89° 47′ E & 92° 47′ E Longitude. It lies on the slope of U Ryngkew Mawiong Hills surrounding the peak. It stands on the plateau between the Wah Umiew or Umiam Mawphlang River in the East and Wah Rina and Wah Lyngkien in the West. The exact year of establishment is not known, but from stories carried out from one generation to another the village come to existence about 500 years back at the time when the Blah Clan is controlling the whole area as a Chief. Mawphlang village cover an area of about 12 sq. Km. It is believe that its name derived from the local abundant presence of hard stones (rock) called ( Maw phlang – phlang).
The people of Mawphlang are Khasis and belong to Austro – Asiatic race nearest to the Khmer Community of Cambodia. Many dialect have the same meaning and the word structure and syntax is in the same pattern. The history of the village can be traced back to the past 250 years when the Blah Clan settled there and subsequently followed by the other clans to form the Khad-ar Kur and these established what is known as Hima Mawphlang.
The mean maximum temperature of the region ranges between 15° C – 25° C and the mean minimum temperature ranges between 5ºC – 18ºC. Relative humidity varies from 25% during winter and 88% during the summer season. The summer and winter temperatures are as under:
Summer Maximum Temperature: 28ºC, Minimum: 12ºC
Winter: Maximum Temperature: 20ºC, Minimum: 3ºC
Rainfall is however, the more pronounced climatic factor of the region. The summer monsoon sets in during June – July accompanied by squally winds and dense mist. The monsoon, which last till September, contributes over 75% of the annual rainfall. The annual rainfall of the region is 2200 mm.
Geology, rock and soil.
The soils are mostly lateritic in origin and vary from sandy loam to clay loam. Due to heavy monsoon rains and inadequate forest cover, hill tops and hill slopes have soil of very low thickness. The soils in the valley and plains are thicker and more fertile. The soil type of the area in the Sacred Groves and in the broad valley portion of the project site varies from dark brown to dark reddish brown in colour with the depth of 50 – 200 cms. The texture varies from loamy to fine loamy in the low lying area to sandy in the upper ridges. The soils are rich in organic carbon with high nitrogen supplying potential, but deficient in phosphorus and potassium. The soil reaction varies from (PH 5.0 – 6.0) to strongly acidic (PH 4.5 – 5.0).